As a parent or guardian, hearing that your child has been accused of a crime can be devastating but it is important not to panic. According to the Department of Justice’s Criminal Justice Statistics Center in 2013 more than 54,000 juveniles were arrested for misdemeanor offenses in the state of California alone with a further 31,000 arrested for more serious felony offenses. The juvenile criminal justice system can seem confusing and regardless of the severity of the crime that your child has been accused of you will want to ensure that they receive the best possible representation by a lawyer you trust and may be asking yourself whether you need to hire a specialist juvenile attorney.
What is juvenile delinquency?
If your child has been accused of a crime then you may be hearing a lot of new terms and phrases right now, including the term ‘juvenile delinquency’. Juvenile delinquency is a way to refer to the action of participating in wrongdoing or acting bad behavior by a minor who is aged between the ages of 14 – 18. The age for a minor can vary from state to state and country to country but in general ends at 18 years of age when the individual is then classed and charged as an adult. If you are unsure as to whether your child fits within the juvenile category it’s best to speak to an attorney.
What is the difference between a misdemeanor and a felony?
The crime that your child has been accused of will either be classed as a misdemeanor or a felony depending on its severity. A misdemeanor is a minor offense such as the theft of a low-value item or possession of a small personal quantity of drugs and will often result in fewer penalties which will be less severe. A felony, on the other hand, is a serious offense and includes crimes such as sexual assault, violence, drug dealing, and gang-related activity and can come with far more serious consequences. In some cases, it has also been known for children who have been convicted of serious felonies to have been tried as an adult which can then incur much more severe adult penalties.
What is the difference between facing trial as a juvenile and an adult?
The crimes committed by juveniles and those committed by adults may be classified in very similar ways but the way in which their case is handled, and the sentences that the accused may face if found guilty, are often very different. In adult cases, the accused is convicted by a jury and may receive bail, whereas in juvenile cases there isn’t a jury trial and instead the case is heard by a commissioner or judge who then hands down their ruling. Juveniles are also not able to take bail, although in certain circumstances they may be released to their parents or guardians instead.
What penalties can juveniles face?
When deciding their sentencing the judge or commissioner in charge of your child’s case will take into consideration the background of your child, the nature of their offense and whether they have been in trouble with the law before. Individuals for which this is their first offense often receive far less stringent penalties in the hope that they will not repeat their behavior. For repeat offenders or those who have conducted more serious crimes, the judge or commissioner must think more carefully about their sentencing and they may hand down far stricter repercussions.
The penalties that juveniles can face if convicted vary from state to state, however, the goal of any juvenile justice system is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation can be achieved in a number of different ways such as through treatment programs, detention centers, and youth facilities, however many young offenders are offered informal or formal probation instead and will undergo community supervision at home.
Should you hire a specialist juvenile lawyer?
Regardless of the severity of the crime that your child has been accused of you will want to speak to a defense attorney who can guide you through the justice process and ensure that you receive the best possible outcome. Although many adult lawyers do take juvenile cases you also have the option to use a specialist juvenile lawyer who is experienced in representing minors. Juvenile lawyers are experts in dealing with juvenile delinquency cases and can help to offer guidance and comfort to both yourselves and your child as you undergo the legal process. Your decision to hire a specialist juvenile lawyer is entirely up to you and maybe influenced by factors such as your financial situation and the severity of the accusation against your child, whichever lawyer you choose, at the end of the day what matters most is that you find someone that will fight for you and defend your child rigorously,
For foreign nationals who have made the US their home, deportation is a nightmare that could, in all honesty, become a reality (and not always because of their own actions). Something as simple as forgetting when a US visa expires can lead to deportation orders being issued, and this is why it is vital that everyone knows the basics of the US deportation process, especially as there are things you can do to appeal against orders that affect you. Don’t wait until it’s happened to find out what your options are, though. Read on to discover all you need to know.
When Deportation Occurs
Broadly speaking, there are three main reasons why nationals who have applied for and successfully been awarded a visa may face deportation. Firstly, a foreign national can be subject to deportation orders if the Secretary of State has reason to believe that this may be in the public’s best interest. Most people will never have to worry about this particular criterion, as it generally covers those convicted of, or believed to be planning, terror attacks or other large offences and threats.
Secondly, a person can be subject to deportation if they are over 17 years of age and have been convicted of a criminal offence that has resulted in a prison sentence. The court that sentenced the individual may deem it necessary that they are deported after release.
Thirdly, a person or persons may be subject to deportation if their spouse, civil partner, or parent(s) have been issued with deportation orders. Despite this, foreign nationals who face breach of their human rights in their home country, have a strong case to fight a deportation order. This applies to any individual who faces religious, racial, or sexual persecution, who would be returning to an active war zone, or who may otherwise be in severe danger if returned to their original country.
The Deportation Process
The deportation process is fairly straightforward. Upon being issued with deportation orders, an individual, or individuals, may be detained without further warning or be subject to restrictions as to their movements and activities. You will want to hire an immigration lawyer for sure. These will not come into place and cannot be enforced until the orders have been served to the person. Upon notification of the order, the foreign national, and their family if applicable, should be informed of their rights of appeal. There is no automatic right of appeal for deportation under the discussed grounds; an individual must actively put forth an appeal.
To stop deportation, you can appeal under Article 8 of the Human Rights Act. This could be a claim that returning to your country of origin would be dangerous or potentially fatal, or that deportation breaches respect for your family and/or private life. The spouses and children of individuals served with deportation orders will have particularly strong cases in this area. You can make such appeals by filling out the ‘one-stop notice’ that should be provided with the deportation orders.
It is key that this form is filled out and returned by the date specified and that the Home Office is contacted if anything changes with your situation, for example, a local war has intensified or new governmental laws have been passed that would lead to persecution or oppression. If deportation is successfully enacted against the individual, they may not reapply for a visa within the next ten years.
The word “disaster” is used to describe a wide variety of different events, but almost all disastrous events fit into one of two disaster categories. To find out more about each category, and the types of events which fit into each category, read on…
The term “natural disaster” is used to describe any event that stem from events related to the earth itself, or extreme weather conditions. For example, earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, droughts, and volcanic eruptions would always be considered “natural” disasters, as all of these occur without direct human intervention.
As well as events related to the natural world, pandemic disease outbreaks are also considered to be “natural” disasters, as are diseases that target agriculture.
Man made disasters
As one would expect given the name, this type of disaster is used to describe events that require direct human involvement. A large number of different events are included in this category.
Conflicts are perhaps the most obvious type of man made disaster, as are riots and terrorist attacks. In addition, oil spills are considered to be man made disasters, and as the infographic below shows, can have a significant long-term impact on the surrounding area.
Furthermore, man made disasters can also include disasters that occur as a result of human activity – for example, nuclear power disasters, chemical threats, and biological weapons. Transport-related disasters, or those involving man made infrastructure, are included in this category.
Finally, disasters that involve the use (or the misuse) of technology – such as cybersecurity attacks, hacks, and data breaches – are also classified as man made disasters.
For many years now, the level of conflict around the globe has been on the decline. This fact, however, often surprises many people used to consuming the endlessly negative news cycle, which seems to indicate that the world is a dangerous and unstable place.
Granted, we still live in a world where conflict flares up from time to time, but the overall trend is one of decline. The world has actually been getting a lot more peaceful according to the raw data.
The Global Peace Index Says That The Middle East Is Getting Safer
If you follow Middle East news, then you’re used to the idea of conflict. In 2003 there was the US invasion of Afghanistan followed two years later by coalition forces invading Iraq because of alleged weapons of mass destruction. Then there was the ongoing civil war in Syria, a conflict that has claimed tens of thousands of lives, not to mention unrest in Saudi Arabia and the war in Yemen.
All of this together makes the world seem like a dangerous place with constant ongoing wars. But the truth is that there has been a continual war somewhere on Earth and that today’s wars, however horrible, are less widespread than they were in the past.
Several factors are driving the trend towards lower conflict. Perhaps the most powerful is the rise of democracy, not just in the West, but all over the world. There are more democracies today than in history, and that number continues to grow with each passing decade. The era of authoritarian governments appears to be coming to an end, and with it, the ability of elites to wage wars.
The renowned development economist Amartya Sen made the observation many years ago that no two democracies have ever gone to war. His view holds to this day, making it much less likely that we’ll see armed conflict in the future. It’s almost impossible today, under the current political setup, to imagine two democratic countries, say New Zealand and Canada, going to war for any reason.
Another factor that’s driving the reduction in military conflict is the fall in population displacement. Despite the news from Sudan and the displacement in Syria, the total number of people worldwide forced to become refugees is on the decline.
What Are The Most Peaceful Countries In The World?
The Institute for Economics and Peace compiles the list of the most peaceful countries in the world, a New York think tank. It ranks countries based on their level of military spending, the number of refugees, the level of internal and eternal conflict, and the export of weapons.
According to their metrics, the most peaceful place in the world is Iceland, an island nation of a little over 300,000 people. The next most peaceful place is New Zealand, followed by Canada, Japan and parts of Western Europe. The least peaceful places are those that you hear about regularly in the news: Sudan, Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
History is a wonderful thing. Records which have been kept over the years and events which have happened have all come together to make us who we are today, and this is something amazing. One event which is particularly relevant right now as the anniversary was mere days ago is D Day. It saw the allied forces of the UK and USA amongst others storm the beaches at Normandy to save countless lives. To honour that today we are taking a look at some of the facts you should know about D Day.
1. D-Day launched operation overlord.
On the 6th June 1944 allows forces launched a large naval, air and land assault against the Nazis in France. This was codenamed operation overlord and it was the beginning of the end of the war for the German side. By the end of the day on the 6th June the allied forces had managed to establish a camp on the beach and this allowed them to start really helping French soldiers.
2. It opened a second front against Germany
As the war started and became more and more aggressive in 1941, allied forces can together and decided that the needed to be stopped. The idea of opening a second front would allow France to be freed from the Nazis and this would put more pressure on Germany and the Nazis. The idea would be that this assault would drain German resources and also cut them off from access to key sites.
3. It took a lot of planning
If you think it is hard to get a team of people in your office to come together and complete a task; imagine how hard it is for different countries to band together in a time of need. D day took a lot of planning and was first drawn up in July of 1943. This means it took almost a year to happen.
4. It was international
As you will know, the allied forces of World War II featured a few countries working together to help the Germans be defeated. It took the efforts of all of these people to come up with and plan d day so that it would be a success.
5. It remains the largest in history
As far as a collaborative effort of naval, air and land forces goes: this remains the largest in history and the most significant one of all. The operation took the skills of many forces to use again the Germans for different goals. After midnight on 6th June, 18,000 paratroopers were the first to hit the beaches. After this forces flew over heard, and boats also began to travel in bringing soldiers with them.
6. Germans tried to defend
Germans had already invaded much of france at this point in the war and this meant that they were ready to defend themselves against an attack. Germany tried to defend the coast with something known as the ‘Atlantic Wall’. However their defences were not very good.
7. It wasn’t just allies who were present that helped
The reason why this event was possible and so effective is because of all of the efforts of allied forces in and around the time of the operation. There were many allied forces who made efforts to weaken the Germans before D-Day and it was this that made a difference.
8. Normandy is a great place
Because of the significance of this event in history, many people will only really travel to Normandy for the memorials. However there are a lot of reasons to visit Normandy and it can be a great place to visit for a holiday.
9. It was the most significant
Out of all of the events during the war, it is safe to say that this one was the true turning point for the allies and it provided them with the strength to be able to go on and eventually liberate the continent of Europe. Now that 75 years have passed, we can look back and see that this day made a huge impact on the world today.
10. It’s not the only one
D day isn’t the name of a specific event, it is simply a general term for an operation of this sort and scale. When we wonder How Many WW2 Veterans are Still Alive? We need to think also that there were many of these kind of events happening throughout the war and all of them had an impact on the final result.
It is becoming more important than ever that we all do our part for the planet, and it is so pressing that we can no longer really afford not to do this. If you are aware of this and you want to make sure that you are doing your part, then a good place to start is always going to be with your business. Businesses in general can be very wasteful, and there is much that they have to answer for when it comes to the way they can treat the planet a lot of the time. But if you have a business of your own then you will know at least that one of the things you can do is to make sure that you are running it as environmentally friendly as possible. The more businesses do this, the better a chance the world has of survival, so it’s something we should certainly think about. In this article, we will look at some of the ways in which you can ensure that you run your business as green as possible.
The idea of a paperless office may still be just something of a dream, but it is a dream which we can still try to work towards as best as we can, and doing so is bound to mean that we are going to experience some significant shifts towards it in our lifetime at least. In general, the less paper you use, the better, but it can be very challenging to make sure that you are doing this in a normal everyday office. Fortunately, there are plenty of things you can do to try and make it a little easier, and it is worth thinking about some of the issues that you might need to face in order to make sure that using paper less is a lot simpler to do.
For a start, you should aim to do everything that you possibly can on computer. These days, you should be able to find pretty decent software solutions for most tasks, and it is often just a matter of trial and error and a little patience in trying to find the right one. Don’t go thinking that you will always have to pay out, either: generally you can also find very good open-source and free versions of the more proprietary software, which are always good to have and mean you can keep an eye on your money at the same time.
Beyond that, using less paper also means that the paper you do use is recycled, which should be an absolute must these days. You can create your own recycled paper by using scrap paper that would otherwise be thrown away, or ensuring that any paper products you do buy are certified as being forest-friendly, meaning that the company in question plants new trees to make up for the paper being used. The less paper we all use, the more trees we have, and the more oxygen there is for us to breathe.
Water might just about be our most precious resource on the planet, yet we so often treat it as though it is completely expendable and replaceable. Part of this might come from a misunderstanding about the water cycle. Yes, it is true that there is a water cycle and that every drop down the drain ultimately becomes rain clouds again, but the less water we waste, the less that has to go through that cycle, which inevitably drains the planet’s resources in doing so. It is much better to not use that much water in the first place, as this puts less pressure on the planet more generally. But using less water is one of those things that, despite everyone knowing it is a good idea, people often find difficult to do. Let’s look at some of the things your business can do to make this aspect of being green a little easier for everyone.
For a start, make sure that you are collecting and conserving rainwater for your usage. It is a simple matter to do this, and it’s something that any business can do if they hope to use less water on the whole. If you use some Tuffa Tanks or the like, you can simply set them up to collect rainwater, which you can then use for whatever purposes you need it for. If it is to drink or wash up or whatever, then you will need to purify it too, but that is easy to do these days too. This is a great way to conserve water, and will make a profound difference to the kind of impact your business is having on the world.
Another way is to simply encourage people in your business to be more mindful of the water that they do use. Whenever they go to the tap, they should be thinking about how much water they are using, and whether it is a little too much. You should not underestimate the power of a well-placed sign here, as that could really make all the difference in the world.
A scheme which is becoming particularly popular amongst businesses everywhere these days is for the company to encourage its employees to find greener ways to travel to work. If you really want to do your part, this is something that you can absolutely think about doing. You can set up a simple program whereby those who show that they cycle or walk to work are able to receive a dividend in their pay, for example. Or you might just want to offer to buy your employees a bicycle instead. However you do it, this is something that can add up to make a really profound difference to the world.
All of the above will help your business to be a little greener, and it is all stuff that you should consider as soon as you possibly can. You’ll find that you are happy to do your part.